Soil Stabilization and its methods

The engineering properties of soil used for pavement base courses, subbase courses, and subgrades by the use of additives which are mixed into the soil affect the desired improvement. There is a need for Soil Stabilization because it reduces the permeability and compressibility of the soil, to increases shear wall strength, to enhance the bearing capacity of the soil, most importantly to improve natural soils for the construction, and its use to make area trafficable for emergency purposes. 

Methods of Soil Stabilization:

Slope stabilization project in Kadish Park in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, fall 2012. Kadish Park is west of Commerce Street and south of North Avenue (sometimes considered part of Kilbourn Reservoir Park). Soil nails were installed in a steep slope, and a turf reinforcement mat was applied after that. In this view, a borehole for a soil nail is being drilled. In the foreground is the setup for a "pullout test".

Mechanical Stabilization 

Mechanical is also known as Granular Stabilization. It is the process of improving the properties of the soil by changing its gradation. Two or more types of natural soils are assorted to obtain a compound material which is superior to any of its part. 

Cement Stabilization

Cement Stabilization is done by blending powder soil and Portland cement with water and compress the mix to achieve a strong substance. 

Types of Cement Stabilisation:

  • Normal Soil-Cement 
  • Plastic Soil-Cement
  • Cement-Modified Soil 


Factors affecting Cement Stabilization:

  • Types of Soil 
  • Quantity of cement 
  • Quantity of water 
  • Mixing, compaction, and curing 
  • Admixtures 

Lime Stabilization 

Lime Stabilization is done by adding lime to a soil, lime reacts with the soil. There is an exchange of cations in the mop-up water layer and a decrease in the plasticity of the soil occurs. The resulting material is more crumbly than early clay and is, therefore, more acceptable as a subcategory. 

Bituminous Stabilization 

Bituminous is a non-aqueous system of hydrocarbon that is soluble in carbon disulfide. It is an inanimate soil that can be added with asphalt is satisfactory for bituminous together and thus distribute as an affix or bond agent. The amount of bitumen requires generally varies between 4 to 7% by weight. 

Factors affecting bituminous stabilization:

  • Types of soil 
  • Amount of asphalt 
  • Mixing 
  • Compaction 

Chemical Stabilization 

In chemical stabilization, soil stabilizes by adding different chemicals. The setting time and curing time can be controlled. It is generally more expensive.

The chemicals which are successfully getting in use are:

  • Calcium Chloride 
  • Sodium Chloride 
  • Sodium Silicate 
  • Polymers 
  • Chrome Lignin

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