Self-healing Concrete and its types

Self-healing concrete describes a material that is able to mend itself when broken. Self-healing is one of the ingenious properties of hardened concrete. 

Old structures remain strong even today in spite of limited maintenance. The researchers recognize that the cracks heal when the moisture interchange with the non-hydrated cement discordant in the concrete. When the water touches the dehydrated cement, additionally hydration occurs. Moreover, dissolved co2 reacts with Ca2 plus to form caco3 crystals. But this type of healing usually occurs only in small cracks. To enhance this property different approaches are follow. 

Self-healing Concrete using:


This type of concrete forms by adding microfibres. Microfibers resist the formation of the split which is less than 50 microns. When the tiny splits form the dry concrete absorbs the water from the air. This moisture interchange with non-hydrated cement discordant attending in the concrete and the tiny cracks heal. 

Polymer microfibers with active carbon particles.


In this concrete, with the help of a germ reaction, the cracks form are healing after hardening. The concrete heals the small cracks by the concept of autogenous healing. For big cracks the self-healing concrete is obtains by the appeal of mineral manufacture bacteria in concrete. The bacteria is for self-healing of splits are acid-manufacturing bacteria. These types of bacteria can be in slumbering cells and be workable for over 200 years under the dry shape. These bacteria act as a chemical reactor in the crack healing process. 


There are various types of bacteria that gets use in bacterial concrete construction. The result of the biotic response of non reacted limestone and a calcium-based nourishing with the help of bacteria to heal the cracks that seem on the building. When the crack form in the concrete, the water seeps in the cracks. The bacteria of the sprout and start feeding on the calcium lactate absorb oxygen. The soluble calcium lactate gets convert to limestone. 

Super-absorbent Polymer

Super-absorbent Polymer material saps our cross-linked hydrogel networks consisting of water-soluble polymers. SAP’s usually compose of ionic monomers and are use in concrete to enhance the self-healing property of the hardened concrete. SAP’s is use in places like agriculture uses, sanitary napkins, diaper, and biomedical purposes. It has the capacity to swell when it comes into contact with the moisture. It is employ in powder form of the technical grade of acrylamide acrylic acid copolymers. When cracking appears super-absorbent polymers are expose to the humid environment and swell. This swelling reaction sees the split from intruding generable damaging material. 

SAP’s are assorte in conqueror cement up to 0.3% of the superabsorbent polymer by weight of cement gives the best results without any depletion in belongings concrete. The increase in the percentage of SAP in concrete grows reasonable of concrete. But a high percentage of SAP can leads to changes in the rheological properties of concrete. From these as PSAPs have the capacity to absorb water. During the mixture of concrete it absorbs some part of the water and which concrete uses for internal curing thus helps in lessening the formation of internal cracks.

Encapsulated Polymers in Self-healing concrete

Encapsulated Polymers are the concept of coating the hydrophobic nanoparticles with an additional polymer layer in a capsule that renders then when it comes in contact with moisture. The use of encapsulated polymers is an advanced technique to obtain self-healing concrete. The capsules are implant in the concrete during the stages of production. After a while when a crack is seen on the capsules break and the content is free. Due to capillary action, the agent flows into the crack. After the reaction, the crack’s countenance is connecting together and the crack is healed. In the case of active cracks in the structure under alternate load encapsulated elastic polymers are mostly used. Depending on the properties requires to regain after days different relieve agents are encapsulated. 


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