Civil engineers play a very important role in society. They are into building, supervising, constructing, and designing projects in the public and private sectors. They doing projects like houses, roads, airports, tunnels, dams, bridges, and many other types of civil work. In this article, we give the most important points which every civil engineer must know.
The following are some Important civil engineering points that every civil engineer must know. These points will help them with their work, also make their work easier.
First few Points are
Firstly,the types of concrete grades are M5(1:5:10), M7.5(1:4:8), M10(1:3:6), M15(1:2:4), M20(1:1.5:3),M25(1:1:2) and M30 and above Grade based on the design mix.
The weight of the one bag cement is 50Kg. And the density of the cement is 1440kgs per m3. Also, the number of cement bags in 1 m3 is 288 bags.
A thickness of the damp proof course should not be less than 2.5cm. Minimum Thickness of the slab is 0.125m.water cement ratio should be between 0.45 to 0.60% of the volume.
The lapping of the bar not allowed if the diameter of the bar is more than 36mm.The maximum spacing of the Chair spacing is 1.00 m (or) 1 No per 1m2. The lapping of the bar should not be provided at the end of the support. Use the 50D formula for the lapping length.
The formula for calculating the weight of the steel bars is W=(D^2 x L)/162. So that the 6 mm of dia bars is 0.22 kg, 8mm is 0.395 Kg, 10 mm dia is equal to 0.62 kg, 12 mm is 0.89 kg, 16 mm is 1.58 kg, 20 mm is equal to 2.469 kg,25 mm is 3.858 kg, 32mm is 6.313 Kg and 40mm dia is equal to 9.865 Kg.
For Square or rectangular column use 4no’s of steel and for circular column use 6no’s of steel.
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Few more important points are
The Longitudinal reinforcement should not be less than 0.8% and more than 6% of gross C/S. The concrete can lift up to the maximum height of 50m by using a concrete pump.
The transverse reinforcement provided in the column is called Tie and the transverse reinforcement provided in the beam is called stirrup. The stirrups in beam and ties in column are provided to handle the shear force and it keep longitudinal bars in position.
The thickness of the lintel is 15cm or 0.15m. The lintel should be provided at 2.4m in case of a brick wall.use minimum 12mm dia of steel bar at the bottom of the plinth beam. Also, use 10mm dia of steel bar at the top of the plinth beam.
Furthermore, Points are
The main bars in the slab should not be less than 8mm (HYSD), or 10mm (plain bars). Also, the distributors not less than 8mm and not more than 1/8 of the slab thickness.
M20 Grade of concrete is generally used in the construction of the slab. More than 3 months old cement may not be used for construction. The total number of bricks required for 1 m3 is 550 bricks. The standard length of the steel bar from the factory is 12m.
The Standard size of the Clay bricks are 9″x4″x3″, Concrete blocks sizes are 16″x8″x8″,16″x8″x6″,16″x8″x4″ and sizes of Fly ash bricks which are the blocks float in water is 24″x8″x4″,24″x8″x6″.
The final few points are
water absorption should not be more than 15%. The compressive strength of the brick is 3.5N/mm2 . The allowable maximum free fall of the concrete is 1.5m.
The chairs of a minimum 12mm diameter of the bar should be used. All reinforcement shall be free from rust, mud, oil, coat of paint, or any other substances. The concrete cover in column should not be less than 40mm.
The vibration in freshly made concrete is done to remove the air and bubbles in the concrete mix. The starter in column thickness should be between 100 to200 mm. The washroom slab should not be less than 7feet. The concrete should be used within 30 minutes to get good results.
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